What is presbyopia?
Presbyopia is a common type of vision disorder that occurs as you age. It is often referred to as the aging eye condition. Presbyopia results in the inability to focus up close, a problem associated with refraction in the eye.
Can I have presbyopia and another type of refractive error at the same time?
Yes. It is common to have presbyopia and another type of refractive error at the same time. There are several other types of refractive errors: myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism.
An individual may have one type of refractive error in one eye and a different type of refractive error in the other.
What is refraction?
Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through one object to another. Vision occurs when light rays are bent (refracted) by the cornea and lens. The light is then focused directly on the retina, which is a light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The retina converts the light-rays into messages that are sent through the optic nerve to the brain. The brain interprets these messages into the images we see.
Causes and Risk Factors
Presbyopia happens naturally in people as they age. The eye is not able to focus light directly on to the retina due to the hardening of the natural lens. Aging also affects muscle fibers around the lens making it harder for the eye to focus on up close objects. The ineffective lens causes light to focus behind the retina, causing poor vision for objects that are up close.
When you are younger, the lens of the eye is soft and flexible, allowing the tiny muscles inside the eye to easily reshape the lens to focus on close and distant objects.
Who is at risk for presbyopia?
Anyone over the age of 35 is at risk for developing presbyopia. Everyone experiences some loss of focusing power for near objects as they age, but some will notice this more than others.
Symptoms and Detection
Some of the signs and symptoms of presbyopia include:
Hard time reading small print
Having to hold reading material farther than arm's distance
Problems seeing objects that are close to you
If you experience any of these symptoms you may want to visit an eye care professional for a comprehensive dilated eye examination. If you wear glasses or contact lenses and still have these issues, a new prescription might be needed.
How is presbyopia diagnosed?
Presbyopia can be found during a comprehensive dilated eye exam. If you notice any changes in your vision, you should visit an eye care professional. Exams are recommended more often after the age 40 to check for age-related conditions.
How is presbyopia corrected?
Eyeglasses are the simplest means of correcting presbyopia. Eyeglasses for presbyopia have higher focusing power in the lower portion of the lens.
Presbyopia can also be corrected with multifocal eyeglasses or contact lenses. Surgery can also be used for the trreatment of presbyopia. Monovision is a well known technique which has made life easier of millions of patients who underwent cataract surgery and selected to have one eye focusing for distance while the other one to focus for near.
Newer techniques include the use of lasik surgery(presbylasik), intraocular implants(multifocal IOLs).
What is an ideal treatment is different for each patient and should be customized for their individual needs. The treatment is selected after detailed examination from an eye specialist and after taking into consideration the special requirements in patient's work and day life.